Travail partagé sur "Civil Rights activists"

……………………………………….Benjamin's contribution

…………………………………………………………..Little rock’s students

I will speak to you about a group of 9 blacks students which was composed of Minnijean Brown-Trickey , Elizabeth Eckford , Gloria Ray Karlmark , Melba Pattillo Beals, Thelma Mothershed , Ernest Green , Jefferson Thomas , Terrence Roberts and Carlotta Walls Lanier.
In 1957 all these students wanted to go to Little Rock Central High School but the racial segregation’s partisans refused blacks students to go to this school. This refusal provoked the intervention of President Eisenhower and on 24 September 1957 the US Army had to escort the students to the little rock high school. Indeed, there were a lot of aggressions from whites students towards blacks students, so Eisenhower sent the Army’s 101st airborne division to protect the black students. It was a great success for the black cause. This event was considered one of the most important in the civil right movement.

……………………………………….Morgane C's contribution

…………………………………………………………..__Marcus Garvey __

We will talk about Marcus Garvey, he was born on 17 August 1887 in Jamaica and he died on 10 June 1940 in London. He was a journalist and political leader. He was famous for black nationalism and he was catholic.

Marcus Garvey is known as a leading political figure because of his determination to fight for the unity of African Americans by creating the UNIA and rallying to gather supporters to fight for the cause. The UNIA stands for "Universal Negro Improvement Association" and the Africans community league.

He founded the UNIA. In 1914, Marcus Garvey returned in Jamaica and he organized the UNIA and he wrote an article “the negro’s crasest enemy”. In it, he explained the origin of the organisation’s name.

……………………………………….Gwellan's contribution

…………………………………………………………..__Harriet Tubman __

Harriet Tubman, (was born Araminta Ross) in 1820 in the county of Dorchester (Maryland) and she died on 10 March 1913 in Auburn (in the State of New York), she was an activist in favour of the abolition of Afro-American slavery. Her actions, which allowed the escape of numerous slaves, earned her the nicknames "black Moses", "Grandmother Moses", or even "Moses of the Black people". After the American Civil War and the abolition of slavery in the United States in 1865, she directed her actions towards the fight against racism and the movement in favour of voting rights for women. Her memory has been formally honored in the United States since the presidential directive of 10 March 1990 and her portrait was on the 20 dollar bank notes, making her the first black woman with such a distintion.

Her parents were slaves, Harriet Green and Ben Ross.

As for many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year, nor the place of her birth were recorded and the estimations of the historians diverge, being spread out from 1820 till 1825.

Her mother Rit was a cook for the family "Brodess". His father Ben oversaw the carpentry work on the plantation. They got married in 1808 and according to the files of the court (yard), they had nine children together: Linah, born in 1808, Mariah Ritty in 1811, Soph in 1813, Robert in 1816, Minty (Harriet) in 1820, Ben in 1823, Rachel in 1825, Henry in 1830 and Moses in 1832.

……………………………………….Kalea's contribution

…………………………………………………………..Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr.

Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940), was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a proponent of the Pan-Africanism movement, to which end he founded the Universal Negro improvement Association and African Communities League. He also founded the Black Star Line, a shipping and passenger line which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands.
In 1916, he arrived in the United States where he met all the movements aiming at the emancipation of the Afro-Americans.
The following year, in 1917, he founded the universal Association United Negro Improvement Association, UNIA & the slogan of this association was " One God! One aim! One destiny! He became one of the first important leaders of the black cause.
In 1914, Garvey returned to Jamaica, where he organized the Universal Negro improvement Association In an article entitled "The Negro's Greatest Enemy", published in Current History (September 1923), Garvey explained the origin of the organization's name.

……………………………………….Julia's contribution

.Charles Sumner. Click on the link below to read Julia's text

Charles Sumner

……………………………………….Charly's contribution

…………………………………………………………..Autherine Lucy

She was born in 1929

She was the first African-American student to attend the university of Albama in 1956. In September 1952 she and a friend, a civil rights activist with the NAACP applied to enrol at the university.
- Lucy attended her first class on Friday February 3rd, 1956.
- On Monday 6th February, riots broke out on the campus.
- After the riots, the university suspended Lucy from school.
- On February, 29th, the Federal Court in Birimingham ordered that Lucy be reinstated and that the university had to accept her.

……………………………………….Mathilde's contribution

…………………………………………………………..Thurgood Marshall

He was a former lawyer, judge of the Supreme Court of the united states.
He was born in Baltimore on 2 juily 1908 and he died on 24 January 1993 in Bethesda.
He was the first Africain-American to sit in the Supreme Court of the USA from 1967 of 1991. He was instrumental in ending legal segregation. He defended the Brown family in 1954, and he worked for the NAACP.
He obtained his diploma in the Howard university in 1933, he studied in Lincoln university, after attending a colored high and training school.
He wrote the book « dreams beackers : the world of justice ».
He was received the medal of liberty.

………………………Pauline D's contribution

…………………….Harriet Tubman or “The Black Moses“

She was born in 1822 and she died on March 10, 1913 .
Harriet was a slave and, for décades, she helped the oppressed to cross the clandestine roads that separated them from freedom .
This heroic destiny gave her the right to have her face printed on the 20 dollar bills in the coming years. No black personality had been entitled to this recognition until then.
The years passed & Harriet is now teenager, but continued to be beaten up by the whites who surrounded her . One of these injuries would particularly influence the continuation of her existence. After suffering a cranial trauma , the young slave had a vision , which she interpreted as a sign of God . Her religious beliefs were reinforced .

In 1849 , when her master died, Harriet Tubman managed to escape . She was finally free . Harriet cameup with a crazy idea : To go back and forth to her old land to free members of her family , then those of her community . She later estimated that she had guided 70 slaves to the north . Some scholars estimated that about hundred men and women took advantage of her experience .

In 1856 the “combahee River “ raid in south carolina freed 700 slaves in one go.

At the beginning of the Civil war, in 1861, she served as a nurse , cook and guide , before forming, two years later, her own troops of spies.

She was to an antiracist and feminist activist .

She finally died in 1913 in a hospital for African-Americans which she had helped to found .

(Her memory is celebrated every year on March 10 ) .