Oil Drilling And Environment

Thomas, Pierre & Tyler



These images introduce the research I'll do

I believe that this research will make any person aware of the dangers of oil extraction.

The consequences of oil extraction and its solutions

Oil is the most important energy resource in the world. We use oil to provide for most of our energy needs; we mostly use oil to power transportation by road, but also to fuel transport by rail, sea and air. Efforts have been made to limit consumption of oil through use of alternatives such as biofuels developed from plants like sunflowers and rapeseed. However, such efforts have had limited success due to the relatively low commercial viability of these alternative fuels; the production of biofuels and other alternative energy sources such as electrical cars are costly. In the case of biofuels, large expanses of land are also required to cultivate sufficient amounts of the plants to produce a quantity biofuel that is necessary for it to be used as a source of energy. Despite the advances made in technology designed to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gases, oil still remains the main global energy resource that countries, particularly those with no energy resources on their territory like France, heavily depend on. This is why many countries without energy resources have developed and now use renewable energy that is neither degrading nor depleting. Examples of renewable energy sources include the sun, water, wind and heat from the core of the earth, which are used to create solar energy, hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy respectively. Many people are aware of the fact that the use of fossil fuels like oil is harmful to the environment and have begun replacing fossil fuels with other sources renewable energy. However, the complete transition to renewable energy use will be very difficult as it must be adapted to our current lifestyles and, therefore, this transition will take several generations. Oil is also used in the manufacture of many synthetic materials such as plastic, textiles and synthetic materials, and it is also a component of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, all of which are very harmful to the environment because these substances pollute land and oceans and destroy plant, animal and marine life. Renewable energy is environmentally friendly and healthier for humans because the combustion of oil emits noxious gases including some petroleum derivatives that are carcinogenic to humans. Transportation of oil also poses threats to the environment. Oil spills caused by the grounding of tanker ships and explosions at oil platforms have disastrous consequences for the environment. Often, oil spills destroy parts of the environment in spite of clean-up efforts, or it takes a long time for the environment to recover from damages caused by oil spills. Another problem that arises from the use of oil is the emission of greenhouses gases. Greenhouse gases are emitted in part by modes of transportation that use oil as fuel. Greenhouse gas emissions cause irreversible damage. The hole in the ozone layer and consequent global warming were caused by greenhouse gases. By using oil as a source of energy, humans have caused significant damage to the environment. Nevertheless, subsequent actions taken to try to rectify the situation have resulted in advancements in renewable energy technology.
by Thomas Leveque

Definition of Oil:

Oil is a liquid carbonaceous rock, which is a mineral oil composed of more or less light hydrocarbons and various organic compounds trapped in specific geological formations. The exploitation of this fossil fuel is one of the pillars of the contemporary industrial economy because oil provides almost all the liquid fuels (oil, diesel, kerosene, gasoline, LPG). Naphthalene, on the other hand, is produced through refining the basis of petrochemicals that come from a very large number of common materials - plastics, synthetic textiles, synthetic rubbers, detergents, adhesives, fertilizers, cosmetics etc. The heaviest fractions are from bitumen, paraffin waxes and lubricants.

A method for the extraction of oil:
The use oil platform in North Sea . An oil platform is a fixed or floating marine structure which is used to operate an oil field. It mainly supports the features necessary for the drilling phase of oil extraction, and sometimes consists of equipment that allow human presence on board.

There are 3 methods of transporting oil at present:
1. The easiest way of transporting oil is through shipping. Large companies like British Petroleum employ this method of transportation. There are nearly 8,000 oil tankers traversing seas and oceans. These vessels are also known as petroleum tankers and supertankers.

A fleet of global oil tankers has 109 vessels with an average capacity of 4,900 tons of oil per boat. There are 500,000 tons of oil in total in the world in almost perpetual motion.

Il y a 3 méthodes pour transporter le pétrole de nos jours.
1 - le moyen le plus frais d'expédition de grandes compagnies, comme BP. Près de 8.000 pétroliers qui sillonnent les mers et les océans. Ces navires sont connus pour les pétroliers, les pétroliers géants à.
La flotte de 109 navires globol atteint avec une capacité moyenne de 4 900 tonnes par bateau, 500.000 tonnes au total dans le monde en mouvement quasi perpétuel.

2. The second most used is method of oil transportation is through pipelines:
Pipelines, a huge pipe of 1.50m in diameter, are used to transport oil from one point to another, sometimes even over millions of miles across countries.
La deuxième méthode la plus utilisé est : l'oléoduc .
Un oléoduc est un énorme tuyau ( 1.50 m de diamètre ) permettent de transporter l'or noir d'un poit A a un point B ; parfois mémé sur des million de Km a travers des pays

Have a look at Pierre's video on the "Lesson videos" page (on the left-hand side of the main page) - great video guys & a great song!

Oil Spills:

Oil spills are accidental or deliberate dumping of oil into a marine environment that causes ecological and industrial disasters. Oil spills result in oil slicks in coastal zones.

Many oil spills occurred over the past year including the disastrous oil spill that occurred with the explosion of the BP (British Petroleum) platform. It exploded on 20 April, 2010, generating a fire and then a major oil spill. It is estimated that around 4.9 million barrels or 780 million liters of oil spilt into the ocean, which may cause the disappearance of about 400 species.


There is a total of 693 land and offshore drilling rigs in the world today.
The United States uses about 20,680,000 bbl/day.
The entire world consumes 30,000,000,000 billion gallons of oil a year.

Il y a un total de 693 plateformes et d'installations de forage offshore dans le monde aujourd'hui.
L'utilisation des États-Unis sur 20.680.000 de barils / jour
Le monde entier consomme 30 milliards de barils de pétrole par an


The earliest know oil well was in China around 347 CE. Oil was first distilled by the Persian alchemist Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi in the 9th century.
The deepest oil well in the world is 39,000 ft. into the ground.

Les premiers puits de pétrole a été trouver en Chine autour du 347 siècle. Le pétrole a été distillé par le persan Muhammad ibn Zakariya alchimiste Rāzi au 9ème siècle
Le puit de pétrole le plus profond dans le monde est a 11887 mêtres dans le sol.


Stakeholders les parties prenantes

Oil drilling has many stakeholders. The oil companies can be a stakeholder if there is an oil spill from a ship or a well that they own. Animals and the environment suffer the consequences of oil spills.


Renewable energy:

Renewable energy is energy used by humans to abate the depletion of reserves of non-renewable resources. In other words, the rate of formation of energy must be greater than its operating speed to be renewable.


A photovoltaic cell is an electronic component which, when exposed to light (photons), produces electricity.


A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from wind into electrical or mechanical energy.


In the field of energy, especially bioenergy, the term biomass refers to all plant-derived organic matter (algae included). Animals can become a source of energy by its combustion.


Hydroelectric power or hydroelectricity is electrical energy generated by conversion of hydraulic energy from different water streams (rivers, waterfalls, ocean currents …). The kinetic energy of flowing water is converted into mechanical energy by a turbine and into electricity by a generator.