Air Pollution from Public Transportion

JESUS, PAUL, ANTOINE AND MANON

VOUS POUVEZ VISUALISER LA PRESENTATION DE NOTRE DIAPORAMA EN APPUYANT SUR CE LIEN.Air Pollution slide show presented by Manon, Paul & Antoine

VOUS POUVEZ VISUALISER NOTRE DIAPORAMA EN APPUYANT SUR CE LIEN POWERPOINT DIAPORAMA - Veuillez patienter, cela peut prendre quelques secondes!

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We all have a car that uses gasoline.

Gasoline is used as fuel in internal combustion engines or internal combustion engines with spark ignition. It is a mixture of hydrocarbons, which are sometimes added to other fuels or additives.

Since the early 19th century, pollution has significantly increased particularly due to an increase in road, rail, marine and aviation traffic. Even if we improve energy efficiency in cars by changing engines or inventing new engine models that consume less fuel, there will inevitably be pollution from transportation that worsens the quality of air.

Polluted air in large quantities may:

- increase the risk of cancer;
- reduce healthy forest and crop areas;
- degrade buildings and facades of historic buildings.

Antoine

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C'est une photo d'un avion.

History/Histoire

English
Oil was first discovered in the United States near Cuba. In 1627 the Seneca Indians led a Franciscan missionary to the site. The Indians used to use the crude petroleum that bubbled up in a spring as medicine and as a paint base.

Français
La première "huile" a été découvert aux États-Unis près de Cuba. En 1627, les Indiens Seneca ont mené une missionnaire (franciscaine) Fran sur le lieu. Les Indiens utilisaient le pétrole brut qu'ils faisaient barboter dans une médecine au printemps et en tant que base de peinture.

Jesus

=> In France, since the industrial revolution, consumption of oil has not stopped increasing.
Unconventional oil constitutes a major axis of development in the petroleum industry. First of all, there is synthetic crude oil derived from bituminous schist and bituminous sands. Large reserves of bituminous sands of Athabasca are found in Alberta, Canada. Canada possesses a modest reserve of conventional crude oil equivalent to an estimated total of a little less than 5.4 billion barrels. However, Canada also has the most important known reserves of unconventional oil. At the end of 2008, it was estimated that reserves in Canada held more than 172 billion barrels of unconventional oil. The exact area of unconventional oil reserves in Venezuela is still being discussed. The economic profitability of large quantities of unconventional crude oil is greater than that of conventional crude oil as the cost of exploitation of unconventional crude oil deposits is appreciably lower than the exploitation of crude oil deposits. For example, the operating costs of crude oil exploitation ranges from 10-14 CAD per barrel to several USD per barrel in Saudi Arabia, though figures are rather variable on this subject.

Manon

Stakeholders/Les Intervenants

People travel by buses, trains and cars, while goods are also transported by the same modes of transportation, which are responsible for a quarter of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere.
Transportation has a costly impact on our planet as emissions from vehicles cause global warming. Vehicles eject pollutants into the lower atmosphere (up to 13km in height) including carbon dioxide, sulfur, nitrogen, dusts, radioactive particles and chemicals amongst which some contain certain fertilizers and pesticides. This is harmful to humans and the environment seeing that it is in the lower atmosphere where meteorological phenomena occur, spreading pollutants that can render breathing difficult. In addition, the unpleasant noises created by engines of vehicles travelling within this lower atmosphere have the greatest impact on our hearing.

Manon

Jesus

English
The various stakeholders involved in the oil industry are:

- oil companies like British Petroleum and Exxon Mobil;
- anyone who drives a car that runs on oil;
- the various countries where oil is found like Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Kuwait.

French
Les différents intervenants impliqués dans l'industrie pétrolière sont:

- Compagnies pétrolières comme British Petroleum et Exxon Mobil
- Toute personne qui conduit une voiture qui utilise de l'essence.
- Les différents pays où on trouve du pétrole comme Arabie Saoudite, Iran, et Koweit.

Possible Solutions/Solutions Possibles

The development of new, ‘cleaner’ technology is not the only solution to the problem of pollution from transportation. There are other ways air pollution can be reduced. People can do simple things such as carpooling, reducing speed while driving, and avoiding the use of cars as much as possible if a non-polluting vehicle such as a bike can be used.

Antoine

Data And Facts/Données et Faits

If air pollution was not an issue that aroused serious concern a few decades ago, today, it's a big problem. The problem of air pollution has been exacerbated by the multiplication of population and vehicles of transportation, which has led to an increase in air pollution.

Paul

English
Air pollution is a big threat to the environment in many parts of the world. Air pollution has extremely negative effects on us and our environment, and the most obvious of these is the harmful impact it has on our health. According to World Health Organization, 2.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution, mostly from different respiratory diseases, but also from heart problems (heart attacks).

Français
La pollution atmosphérique présente une grande menace pour l'environnement dans de nombreuses régions du monde. La pollution atmosphérique a beaucoup d'effet négatifs sur notre environnement, et l'effet le plus négatif évident joue sur notre santé. Selon l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé 2,4 millions de gens meurent chaque année de causes directement imputables à la pollution atmosphérique, principalement à partir de différentes maladies respiratoires, mais elles peuvent aussi entraîner des problèmes cardiaques (coups de cœur).

Jesus

Make the change that you want to see in the world.

What is oil?

It is a liquid rock which has a strong concentration of carbon, a mineral oil that consists of hydrocarbons more or less light and of diverse organic compounds trapped in particular geological formations.

It is from this fossil fuel that oil supplies for liquid fuels such as fuel, diesel oil, gasoline, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) are extracted. Naphthalene, which is used in the production of materials such as plastic, synthetic fabrics and synthetic rubbers, is produced on the basis of petrochemistry. The rest, after fuel and naphthalene production, is used in the production of asphalt, paraffin wax and lubricants.

The most serious impact that oil has on the environmental results from the emission of carbon dioxide produced when it is combusted as fuel. The combustion of fuel releases not only carbon dioxide but also other pollutants such as sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. It is considered, however, that if oil base fuels are more polluting than natural gas, it is sharply less polluting than coal and bituminous sands.

The extraction of oil also has a negative impact on the local ecosystems even if, as in any industry, risks of consequences can be reduced by careful practices. Therefore, certain fragile areas have been closed to exploitation due to fears for the surrounding ecosystem and existing biodiversity. The production and transportation of oil can also be disastrous. There have been many instances of oil spills that have been detrimental to the environment. Finally, the effects of degassing, which is also harmful to the environment, as well as more hidden causes of environmental degradation such as that caused by the abandonment of worn oil, cannot be neglected.

Pollution from transportation exists in several forms that have a wide range of environmental consequences. Below is a list of the most critical effects of pollution from transportation:

• Atmospheric pollution: This is the most evident from of pollution from transportation as it can be seen when fumes arise from vehicles. Air and respiratory diseases in cities, the release of greenhouse gases and global warming are detrimental consequences of atmospheric pollution, which will linger into the future and pose problems for future generations.
• Water pollution: This can be caused by oil spills and offshore degassing during oil production.
• Acoustic/noise pollution: This is especially an issue for city dwellers and those who live near airports.
• Aesthetic/visual pollution: A heap of cars agglutinated in front of a red light or a highway constructed in front of your house can hardly be seen as visually pleasing.
• Negative impact on the nervous system: The stress of traffic jams, disagreements between motorists, collisions and other accidents are not healthy for the mind and soul.

The major atmospheric pollutants are:
• Carbon dioxide ( CO2): This is the main greenhouse gas and leading contributor to global warming, causing approximately 60% of global warming.
• Carbon monoxide (CO): This gas can settle on hemoglobin and prevent the transport of oxygen in the body. It is an odourless gas, which dilutes very easily into the ambient air. In closed environments, high concentrations can be toxic, even mortal.
• Nitrogen oxide (NOx): This gas provokes respiratory problems and increases one’s susceptibility to microbial attacks. It also causes 6% of global warming.

Oil in the world

Oil reserves indicate the volume of recoverable oil from bare oil fields on the basis of current economic and technical constraints. The calculated volume is based on the estimation of the present quantity of oil in already known fields, modified by an underestimating coefficient dependent on our capacity to extract the oil from the ground this oil. This coefficient varies from field to field, and this variation can be anywhere between 10 and 50%. The world average of this coefficient is, however, around 35% according to estimations made in 2009.

Possible oil reserves are categorized according to the probability of existence of oil at their base. A proved reserve has a probability exceeding 90%. An indicated reserve has a probability of 50% to 90%. An inferred reserve has a probability ranging between 10% and 50%.

We also distinguish between reserves according to the type of oil it contains: conventional oil or unconventional oils. Unconventional oils are essentially constituted of some extra-heavy oil, sands asphalts, and bituminous schist. The profitability of the deposits of unconventional oil is uncertain because the quantity of energy necessary for their extraction is significant.

Generally, the quantity of oil available is deduced from estimated quantities present in proved reserves of conventional oil. So, in 2005, the world reserves of conventional oil were estimated to be equivalent to 1200 billion barrels according to statistics provided by British Petroleum.

Since 1965, there has been a decrease in discovery of oil deposits. Today, the quantities of oil discovered every year represent approximately only a third of the current world production of oil. The ten largest oil deposits from which the greatest quantities of oil are extracted were discovered before 1976.

Finally, in order to avoid polluting as much as possible, it is better to use forms of transportation such as bikes, public buses and subway trains (where available) that help reduce air pollution.
However, vehicles of transportation are not the only sources of air pollution. There are also other sources such as: heating systems, thermal power plants, and industrial installations.
These sources of pollution are called "anthropological" pollution as it is linked to human activities and movement. The pollution from these sources can be:

- brief or chronic;
- visible smoke or invisible pesticides in the air;
- emitted in great quantities or, on the contrary, in low doses;
- scattered and emitted by hundreds of millions of mufflers in plants.

Manon

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An image of people walking on a city street and car exhausts emitting smoke from a low angle.
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Olds cars pollute more than the cars of today. However, today, there are more cars than ever before! Therefore, there is more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

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Paul

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