Air Pollution From Manufacturing
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Thomas, Antoine, Grégoire & Vanessa
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1) Antoine's

AGRICULTURE
Fertilizers that we manufacture for agriculture is one cause of air pollution and so are intensive rearing of livestock such as cows and/or pigs.

DOMESTIC ACTIVITIES
People also pollute the air surrounding them. The events and inventions of the 21st century have driven us to pollute the earth. For example, when we start our cars, we use fuel to run the engine and to produce electricity that allows us to use all the amenities of our cars such as air conditioning and lighting. Using products like fuel to run our cars creates pollution.

Using nail polish also creates pollution as solvents in nail polish are harmful to the environment.

Our daily garbage and wastes are also major contributors to air pollution. Burying and burning garbage results in the emission of fumes and substances that pollute the ground and air. In addition, we could possibly one day overfill the earth with all our garbage. Therefore, to reduce pollution and our impact on the earth, we should recycle as much as possible.

INDUSTRY
All industries that manufacture chemicals, metals, fertilizers, perfumes, medicines, plastics and cement emit gases and dangerous dust into the air that are harmful to the environment. The creation of energy also creates air pollution. Electricity producers and oil refineries are heavy polluters of the air.

POLLUTANTS
There of many air pollutants, but they exist in two main forms :
- Gases (up to 90% of air pollutants)
- Solid particles such as smoke, dust and pollen (around 10% of pollutants)

Here are different kinds of gases:
- Chlorofluorocarbons
- Methane (CH4)
- Carbon monoxide (CO)
- Carbon monoxide (CO2)
- Nitrogen dioxide (NOx)
- Ozone (O3)
- Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

Air pollution can negatively affect people. For example, it can cause disorders, and some gases may cause headaches, dizziness and even death. It also accelerates erosion of buildings as air pollution causes acid rain. In cities, facades have been blackened by gases emitted from car exhaust pipes. In terms of flora and fauna, there has been disappearances of species and dieback of forests. Global warming is and has been one of the greatest issues of the 21st century, and one which is considered to be a direct result of air pollution.

Factories pollute. They emit a lot of smelly thick smoke and also create noise pollution. The pollution from factories also have a harmful impact on the environment.

Antoine Bêchepois

Alexei Yablokov (an ecologist) has attracted the attention of the Russian public in pointing to the fact that some fifty million Russians live in zones of ecological danger. This represents between 14% and 16% of the country. This danger is not limited to the threats posed by the production of nuclear power, but also the harmful effects that air pollution created by the oil industry Gazo, clearing of forests and destruction of natural reserves have on the environment. These are all effects that, according to Yablokov, consistently reduce life expectancy in Russia and are the direct causes of 250,000 to 300,000 people each year.

The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) provided the first observation of the changing climate in recent decades. It is a fact, they say, that the average temperature of the Earth's surface has risen by 0.6 C between 1900 and 1990 and that the 90s was the warmest decade of the past 1,000 years. According to the report, the global temperature will increase again, and this increase will range between 1.4 C and 5.8 C according to their methods of calculation. The IPCC estimates in any case that it will be very likely that this temperature increase will be an unprecedented increase not yet seen over the past 10,000 years at least. Air pollution being a contributor to global warming is also undeniable: the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air has increased by 31 per cent since 1750, the beginning of the industrial era. This date was not chosen at random: the industrial revolution marks the beginning of the use of fossil fuels for energy. Projects also show that by the year 2100, there will be a significant increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (between 75% and 350%) depending on policies of emission reduction. Carbon dioxide also aggravates the problem of air pollution as it takes on average a century for a molecule of carbon dioxide emitted into the air to be captured naturally by vegetation or to be absorbed into the ocean. Therefore, even if carbon dioxide emissions are significantly reduced over the next 50 years, as it is permissible to consider if countries commit to the Kyoto Protocol and implement emission reduction schemes, temperatures will continue to increase for several centuries. Stabilization of sea levels and melting ice will be even slower to respond to reduction of emissions. Finally, if nothing is done, it will be even worse to the point that in the long term the planet will become uninhabitable.

Antoine Bêchepois

To fight against pollution, you could:

  • avoid using the car for short trips.
  • avoid overheating the house in winter.

*reduce usage of air conditioning in the car in summer.
*avoid buying aerosol sprays.

  • sort garbage and recycle as much as possible so that you reduce recyclable wastes being burnt unnecessarily.

*limit speed and acceleration while driving so that you consume less fuel.
*adjust the boiler every year so that it is working under optimal conditions.
*install solar panels on the roof of your house.

Antoine Bêchepois

2) Grégoire's text:

Air pollution from
manufacturing

1) Causes of air pollution:

The causes are numerous. Many activities create the air pollution. For example:
-Transportation;
-Agriculture;
-Domestic activities;
-Work in industries.

a) Transport:

The transportation of goods and people is a significant cause of air pollution because gases are emitted from vehicles of transportation such as cars and plane etc. The use of fuel is contributes enormously to air pollution.

b) Agriculture.

Manufacturing of fertilizers for agriculture and the breeding and rearing of livestock are also causes of air pollution. Noxious gases produced while manufacturing fertilizers can also be harmful when inhaled by humans.

c) Domestic activities:

The Earth is polluted every day by humans engaging in domestic activities. For example, we use cars, air conditioning, electricity, paints that contain solvents etc., all of which contribute to air pollution. In order to mitigate the impact we are having on the environment, we must firstly sort our wastes. We must recycle to avoid overloading our trashcans with garbage which are burned or buried in the earth at garbage dumps both of which create a lot of air pollution.

d) Industries:

Industries manufacture chemicals, metals, fertilizers, flavors, medicines, plastics, cement etc. Manufacturing these products involve the use of fuel and other chemical substances that are heated and burnt emitting dangerous gases and dusts into the air and the environment. The emission of harmful gases also occurs during the production of power such as electricity and at oil refineries, which adds to the creation of air pollution. There has been, however, attempts to create cleaner sources of energy that pollute less to produce electricity. For example:

Wind turbines

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Hydraulic exchange or hydroelectric dams

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Solar panels

2) The effects of air pollution.

Air pollution can cause different disease such as coughing and other respiratory problems such as irritation of respiratory tracts, allergies, asthma or frequent bronchitis. Gases such as carbon monoxide can cause headaches, dizziness and even death. For us humans, it is for these reasons that air pollution seriously concerns us. The harmful effects of air pollution not only affect humans, but also flora and fauna. The products of air pollution such as acid rains have caused serious damage to the natural world. There have been disappearances of animal species, decay of forests, global warming, and the creation of a hole in the ozone layer. The effects of air pollution on health of humans are cited on several sites such as the sites of ADEME and CITEPA.

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-Aridity

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-Cast iron of ice floe

a) Gases as the primary cause of air pollution.
There are many gases that cause air pollution and they constitute 90% of air pollution. Solid particles such as dust and smoke constitute 10% of air pollution.

Methane (CH4). Carbon dioxide (CO2)

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Air pollution emitted by factories in an industrial area

Pollution is the cause of some grave consequences for life and the environment. For example:
- The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon associated with infrared absorption of light. Light is reflected back onto the earth’s surface in the form of waves of large wavelengths by components present in the atmosphere. These components are called greenhouse gases and include carbon dioxide, methane, water, ozone, nitrogen protoxide and halocarbons. As a significant proportion of light waves are reflected back onto the earth’s surface rather than travelling into space, energy from the wave is absorbed and is transformed into heat. The increase in greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming.
- Acidification is the increase in acidity of soil, a course of water or air due to human activities. This phenomenon can modify chemical and biological balances and seriously affect ecosystems.
- The depletion of the ozone layer.

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The Greenhouse Effect

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The depletion of the ozone layer.

Regulations:

Air pollution, caused by atmospheric pollutants, is more difficult to regulate effectively both locally and internationally than many other forms of pollutants. World conventions, which concern the harmful and destructive air pollutants that could be and most likely are modifying the natural world, have been and are being held.

Some regulations for marine pollution which has effect on the cleanliness of our air:

(Rule 12) - Forbids the use of the substances that are damaging to the ozone layer such as (CFC). New installations that contain substances that are harmful to the ozone layer have been forbidden on all the ships; however, existing installations containing hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCHCs) are authorized until 1st January, 2020.

(Rule 14) - Regulates the emission of SOx by ships by introducing a maximal sulfur content of 4.5% in marine fuels.

Handling of refuse from industries

Industries are often considered to be serious polluters. They throw wastes into water. These industries include:
- Food-processing industries,
- surface treatment industries,
- Leather industries

Gases emitted by industries:

Smokes thrown rejected by factories contain acid and toxic gases which fall again with the rain, he goes building up to itself by it bad acid rains for the vegetation and the human beings. More CO's emissions (carbon dioxide) are also one of the gases emitted by these thrown rejected smokes.

Air pollution caused by factories:

Factories use a dust inhalation system for in their fabrication method. Following fabrication, the air in the factory must be filtered before being ejected outside the factory.

Waste water disposal by factories:

A factory uses and then disposes of water in a variety of their fabrication methods. Factories that use such methods must be equipped with a water-treatment plant. The treatment of water eliminates suspension materials such as residues of wash, fat and oil, as well as toxic materials such as chemicals and heavy metals from the solution. However, only 65% of waste water are passed through the water-treatment plant.

Waste disposal by factories:

A factory must also sort out its wastes and favor recycling. Wastes containing harmful elements must be retained and treated by companies that specialize in different treatments of suspension materials such as oil, solvents, acids, piles, electronic components, neon light tubes etc. in solutions.

Efforts made to fight against industrial pollution:

Efforts have been made to reduce the flow of classic pollution (organic and nitrogenous matters and suspension materials) into nature. Most of the efforts have been placed on reducing these wastes from major industries but also from a few small firms whose waste production may not be as obvious but the accumulated impact of which is nevertheless very important. Studies have confirmed that toxicity in wastes disposed by industries to be harmful to both marine life and humans. Studies have also allowed the determination of quantity of wastes disposed.

Grégoire Boudier

3) Thomas's text:

Industries are responsible for the release of a wide variety of air pollutants due to the wide range of activities of different industrial sectors. Industries are notably the largest emitters of zinc, selenium, lead, mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, SF6 (sulfur hexafluoride) and PFCs (perfluorocarbons).

Rivers are polluted by these industrial plants, and so freshwater fish are contaminated and people who eat fish from these rivers are also at risk of being poisoned.

The main sources of air pollution are industries, agriculture and traffic, as well as energy generation. During combustion processes and other processes of production, air pollutants are emitted. Some of these substances are not directly harmful to air quality but will undergo adverse reactions with other substances in the air and transform into a harmful air pollutant. Examples of air pollutants on a large scale are VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and small dust particles. When a large concentration of these substances is emitted, they negatively affect ecosystems, materials and public health.

Since the nineteenth century, new forms of pollution have come into existence. During the Industrial Revolution, cities began to be significantly polluted mainly due to the increasing use of coal at the time. This development was very serious as most the workers' housing was located close to the production sites.

Thomas Baubry

Pollution from manufacturing

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Air pollution: Carbon dioxide is one of the main air pollutants. Carbon dioxide gas is used in many industries like the oil industry and the chemical industry. Manufacturing processes of most products require this gas. Scientists have now identified carbon dioxide as one of the elements that cause global warming.

Clean Manufacturing - Nuclear Power

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Humans are the main source of pollution since we are the ones that are driving cars and engaging in activities that create air pollution.

Solar power is always seen as source of energy that is clean and green. However, there has been a study that has shown that the manufacture of solar cells is a very, very dirty process. Just think of mining ore, the process of producing silicon, the doping process, and all the plastics involved. It's in fact similar to the manufacturing computer parts, which is not a ‘clean’ process at all. In addition, manufacturing solar cells consumes so much energy that solar power could actually be as polluting as oil or even coal!

Though industrial air pollution is big in developed countries, it's almost worse in developing countries because some manufacturers move their industrial operations to countries that have little regulation, so that they don't have to implement expensive measures to avoid releasing toxins into the air and water.

An article has referred to problems in the United States. The problem of industrial air pollution is one that most people assume has been taken care of since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970. However, it is still a large problem that can have a huge impact upon the environment and the health of citizens. The Clean Air Act did engender some progress in decreasing air pollution released by industrial sources, but it did not completely solve the problem. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has estimated that approximately 120 million American citizens live in cities where the air is made unhealthy by industrial air pollution. As you can tell from the accident that occurred in Japan, nuclear power is good but it can cause havoc if something goes wrong.

L'homme est la raison principale de la pollution depuis que nous avons sont ceux qui sont le moteur des wagons et de telles. L'énergie solaire est toujours considérée comme quelque chose de vert et non polluantes et floues. Toutefois, cette étude constate que la fabrication de cellules solaires est très sale. Il suffit de penser de l'extraction de minerai, le traitement de produire silicium et processus du dopage, et toutes les matières plastiques impliqués. C'est similaire à la fabrication pièces d'ordinateur. En outre, l'énergie impliquée consomme tellement d'énergie que l'énergie solaire pourrait effectivement être aussi polluantes comme le pétrole ou même le charbon! Bien que la pollution industrielle est grand dans les pays développés, il est presque pire dans les pays en développement car certains produits manufacturés déplacer leurs opérations industrielles non réglementés pays afin qu'ils n'ont pas de mettre en oeuvre coûteux mesures visant à ne pas diffuser des toxines dans l'air et l'eau. Cet article pour la plupart aborde les problèmes dans les États-Unis le problème de la pollution industrielle est l'un que la plupart des gens assumer a été pris en charge depuis l'adoption de la Clean Air Act en 1970, mais il est encore un grand problème que peut avoir un impact énorme sur l'environnement et la santé des citoyens. . L'Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a estimé qu'environ 120 millions d'Américains vivent dans les villes où l'air est faite malsain par la pollution industrielle. Comme vous pouvez dire à partir de la Japon accident, l'énergie nucléaire est bon, mais il peut faire des ravages sur tout le monde si quelque chose va mal.

Historical Background
September 1883 is when pollution started to become a problem. It is when the Industrial Revolution began.
Septembre 1883 n'est lorsque la pollution a commencé à devenir un problème; lorsque la révolution industrielle a commencé.

Stakeholders
Stakeholders include people who drive cars because they wouldn’t want to stop driving their cars. Even though they won’t stop driving, they may still care about the environment and the negative effects of pollution.
Parties prenantes comprennent des personnes qui conduisent des voitures car; ils n'aimerais pas cesser de conduire leur voiture. Même s'ils n'aurez pas cesser de conduire, ils peuvent préoccuper l'autre côté de la situation, la pollution, c'est.

Data/Statistics

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Possible Solutions
I think that there is a lot that us humans can do to help save the world that we have been destroying. We could switch from gas and diesel cars to solar powered cars. We could place filters that trap harmful substances in the pipes that emit gases at manufacturing factories so that clean oxygen is released and so that some of the trapped substances may be recycled. Same with water, and everything else; we should filter what we can, and recycle the trapped substances. It would be great if we could stop manufacturing plastic or at least find a way to get rid of plastic using a method other than combustion. You can stand up for the place where you live and everyone should come together to help.
Je pense qu'il y est beaucoup que nous humains peut faire pour aider le monde nous aidé à détruire. Nous pourrions passer du gaz et les voitures diesel à énergie solaire voitures. Nous aurions pu filtres sur les tubes que excréter la pollution des produits manufacturés que piège la pollution, laisser oxygène pur, plus tard attraper le pris au piège de la pollution et recycler. Même avec l'eau, et tout le reste; nous devrions filtre ce que nous pouvons, et recycler les piégés substances.

What are some other forms of pollution?
-Acid Rain [les pluie acide]
“Acid rain” is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposited materials from the atmosphere containing higher than normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acid, leading us back to exhaust sulfur pollution.
"Les pluies acides" est un terme large se référant à un mélange de sec et humide déposés matériaux contenant de l'atmosphère supérieure à la normale montants acide nitrique et de l'acide sulfurique, qui nous retour d'épuiser pollution par le soufre.

-Car Exhaust [Voiture d'échappement]
Did you know that car exhaust pollutes our oxygen with sulfur? It is very bad, indeed. For a while, we were making aerosol cans (such as Febreeze) with a substance that was depleting our ozone layer.
Saviez-vous que cette voiture échappement pollue notre oxygène avec du soufre? Très mauvais, en effet. Pendant un certain temps, nous faisions des aérosols (tels que Febreze) avec une substance qui a été épuiser nos couche d'ozone.

-Water pollution [La pollution des eaux]
Water pollution is just as bad as air pollution because what constitutes nearly eighty percent of our body? Water. We need water to live and if it’s polluted, then what good is it?
La pollution des eaux n'est aussi mauvais que la pollution atmosphérique parce que, ce qui se place près de 80 p. 100 de notre corps: l'eau. Nous avons besoin d'eau de vivre et si c'est pollué, alors à quoi bon?

What is the O-Zone Layer?
The ozone layer is what protects us from radiation that could instantly kill us if we ever come in contact with it. So the ozone layer seems pretty important now, doesn’t it?
La couche d'ozone est ce que nous protège contre les rayonnements que si contacté, pourrait instantanément nous tuer. Afin que l'ozone couche semble assez important maintenant, pas il?
Vanessa